Sails and Rigging 

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Basic Principles of Sails and Rigging (Pub. No. 5532)

 Sails, sails, sails--small wonder that the average beginner is a little at sea. Well he knows that a sail is nothing more or less than a piece of cloth used in propelling a boat through the water, but of the wide variety of types and of the various strings which control these different sails, his knowledge is painfully scant--so limited that a Ketch is often pointed out as a Yawl, a Knock-about is invariably given its family name of Sloop, and a Bermudian is off-times described in a manner which is not at all salt as, that sassy looking tub with the tipsy mast. In looking at some of these different types of sail, we will consider the location and shape only, for therein lies the key, in most cases, as to which class the boat belongs. First of all, that typical snub-nosed American, the Cat-rig, or rather Catboat, since the hull used with this type of sail is, half-consciously perhaps, always considered as part of the whole. You will notice that there is a single mast, set well forward, with a boom attached to the lower end and a gaff to the top or upper end. The sail is fastened to these three--mast, boom and gaff--and, being single, is naturally the mainsail; also, since the top or head of the sail is supported by a gaff, we have gaff-headed. Thus, a Cat-rig might be roughly described as a single, gaff-headed sail set on a mast well forward without any additions in the shape of either headsails or topsails or added spars. With the addition of a jib sail forward, and a change in the mast location, the Catboat becomes a Sloop, (from the Dutch Sloep). The Sloop rig is the commonest one-masted rig in America, being changed to suit various localities. Some of these changes have been unimportant; others have merited a new name for the rig thus evolved.

24 pages, 4 plate(s)

Aerodynamics of Yacht Sails, The (Pub. No. 5713)

by Edward P. Warner and Shatswell Ober

The work described in this report is the outgrowth of a series of wind tunnel experiments on sails made at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1915 to 1911 and of sundry attempts on the part of the writers to find relations between the performance of sails of a yacht and the wings of an airplane.
The work was done in the summer of 1913, being under the direction of the writers with the assistance of Messrs. John R. Markham, W. Laurence LePage, and James B. Ford. The yacht for the full-scale experiments was furnished by Mr. John S. Lawrence. He and Messrs. Livingston Davis, W. Starling Burgess, and others aided greatly in the course of the work through their experience and interest. The Marconi-rigged S class yacht Papoose was used in all the full-scale experiments. The yacht was fitted with racing sails of the usual cut, the leach being made as flat as possible. The mainsail ran up the mast on a track, and therefore pulled off from the centre of the mast at all times instead of being free to swing around the spar as it could if it were on hoops.

31 pages

Ways to Repair or Replace Rigging (Pub. No. 5892)

Many different fittings have been devised to attach wire rope to a turnbuckle.

12 pages

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